Formula racer in San Francisco Bay.
The earliest prototypes of a sailboard date back to the late 1950s. Californians Jim Drake (a sailor) and Hoyle Schweitzer (a surfer) received the first patent for a sailboard in 1968. They called their design a Windsurfer, and Schweitzer began mass-producing sailboards in the early 1970s. The sport quickly spread throughout North America, and by the late 1970s it had become widely popular in Europe. Its popularity soon spawned a thriving sailboard manufacturing industry in Europe, one that has come to dominate the windsurfing market. The first world championship of windsurfing was held in 1973. There are currently several competitive windsurfing circuits that hold regattas, slalom races, and wavesailing competitions (a subjectively judged style event).
Olympic windsurfing features sailors racing over a traditional triangle course and was first contested in 1984, as a demonstration sport, with separate competitions for men and women introduced in 1992. There were slight equipment changes in successive Olympiads: sailboards of the Windglider design were used at the 1984 Games, Division II boards in 1988, Lechner boards in 1992, and Mistral boards from 1996.
A sailboard is composed of a board and a rig. The early Windsurfer boards measured 3.5 metres (12 feet) long and weighed 27 kg (60 pounds). Current boards range from 2.5 to 4 metres (8 to 12.5 feet) long and weigh between 7 and 18 kg (15–40 pounds). Long boards (more than 3 metres [10 feet] long) have a small keel, also called a centerboard or a daggerboard, and a skeg (rear bottom fin) but no rudder. Short boards (less than 3 metres long) have a skeg but no centerboard. The rig consists of the sail, double boom, mast, and mast base. Sails may vary in size (3.5 to 10 square metres [38 to 108 square feet]) and function (race, slalom, and wave). The mast connects to the board through the mast base, which has a universal joint that allows the mast to be moved in any direction. The boat is steered by changing the sail’s position relative to the wind and to the centerboard. This is accomplished by adjusting one’s hold on the double boom in order to rake the sail forward or aft, windward or leeward.
Windsurfing lends itself to a wide variety of water types and conditions. The sport is practiced with equal enthusiasm on the Great Lakes and on estuaries and harbours along the coasts of Europe and North America, as well as on many larger rivers. In the early days of windsurfing, sailboards were capable of only modest speeds and were used close to shore. However, the sport has evolved to the point that experienced sailors using specialized sailboards have reached speeds of more than 40 knots and have sailed across the Atlantic Ocean.
A guide to the sport, Windsurfing, Step by Step to Success, was published by Rob Reichenfeld in 1993.